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Data Formats

Published onOct 29, 2019
Data Formats

When working in a Lab, a number of data formats are frequently used. This list is by no means complete, but provides an overview of possible formats.




Structural metadata

Bibliographic metadata

  • Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) is a conceptual model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) which is focused on user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogues from a user-centred perspective.

  • Bibframe was initiated by the Library of Congress in order to replace MARC standards and to adopt the linked data principles.

  • Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a package of data elements, guidelines, and instructions for creating library and cultural heritage resource metadata that are well-formed according to international models for user-focused linked data applications.

  • Bibliographic Ontology (BIBO) provides main concepts and properties for describing citations and bibliographic references (i.e. quotes, books, articles, etc.) on the Semantic Web.

Museum metadata

Archival metadata

Cultural Heritage Metadata

  • Europeana Data Model (EDM) is the formal specification of the classes and properties that could be used in Europeana, the EU digital platform for cultural heritage.

  • CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model(CRM) provides definitions and a formal structure for describing the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in cultural heritage documentation.

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